Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York : W. Morrow, 1986.Halberstam, David. The Children. New York : Random House, 1998.
Jenkins, Mary Royal. Open Dem Cells: A Pictorial History of the Albany Movement. Columbus : Brentwood Academic P, 2000.
This book offers a visual display of the Albany Movement that captures the heart of the activism. The photographs are arranged in a chronological sequence of the movement with detailed descriptions of the events that transpired. A great source for orienting readers with the citizens of Albany who worked to desegregate the city and their tireless efforts to enact change.
King, Mary. Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. New York : William Morrow & Company, Inc, 1987.
This book offers an expansive look into the participants of the Civil Rights Movement. Although the book focuses primarily on Mrs. King's experiences and those she met and worked with, it also helps to paint a picture of the hostile climate surrounding the 1960s. The book offers more than a single story by including the lives of other activists, thus creating a sense of community. The freedom songs play an instrumental role (introduction to each chapter) as King explains how these songs helped to motivate and spiritually sustain participants of the movement.
Lyon, Danny. Memories of the Southern Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina P, 1992.
Morris, Aldon D. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change. New York : Free P, 1984.
Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize : America ’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. New York : Viking, 1987.
A companion to the Eyes on The Prize video series.
Anderson, William G. “Reflections on the Origins of the Albany Movement.” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 9 (1994): 1-14.
Dr. William G. Anderson explores the formation of the Albany Movement from his perspective as president. While analyzing the various functions of the Movement, the article also entails the experiences of Martin Luther King Jr. in this grassroots organization. Anderson examines different facets of the Movement in Albany to demonstrate the function of the people who sacrificed their livelihood to end segregation.
Carson, Clayborne. “SNCC and the Albany Movement.” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 2 (1984): 15-25.
Describes SNCC’s involvement in Albany , Georgia during the fall of 1960. With the help of SNCC leaders Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon, the Albany Movement helped to train SNCC volunteers with nonviolent resistance to inspire the black community to action. In Albany , SNCC gained confidence and momentum as an organization of the Civil Rights Movement.
Chalfen, Michael. “Rev. Samuel B. Wells and Black Protest in Albany , 1945-1965.” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 9 (1994): 37-64.
This article explores the persistence demonstrated by the citizens during the Albany Movement. By chronicling the major figures of the Movement, Chalfen constructs a powerful examination of the events that transpired to desegregate Albany , Georgia . The role of Reverend Wells as both pastor and member the Albany Movement helped to inspire citizens to work together to achieve equality within the city.
---. “The Way Out May Lead In: The Albany Movement Beyond Martin Luther King, Jr.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79.3 (1995): 560-98.
Chalfen’s article pertains to the different phases of the Albany Movement. From the Movement’s inception to the rise of voter registration drives, this article examines the citizen response to the Albany Movement as well as the support of various Civil Rights organizations who pledged support in Albany .
Lyon, Danny. “Through the Camera's Eye: Memories of the Southwest Georgia Movement.” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 9 (1994): 26-36.
Lyon ’s role as SNCC photographer helped to create an identity for the organization. Using this position, Lyon ’s provides insightful commentary on the organization’s engagement with the black community during the early 1960’s in Albany , Georgia to combat racial injustice.
Oates, Stephen B. “The Albany Movement: A Chapter in the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 2 (1984): 26-39.
This particular essay pertains to Martin Luther King Jr.’s continuous involvement in the Albany Movement. Offers detailed accounts of King’s journey throughout the South from 1961-1962. A concise into look the story behind King’s work with members of the Albany Movement to desegregate the city.
Ricks III, John A. “‘De Lawd’ Descends and is Crucified: Martin Luther King, Jr. in Albany , Georgia .” Journal of Southwest Georgia History 2 (1984): 3-14.
This article explores SNCC and Dr. King's involvement in the Albany Movement. Ricks examines the black community's response to Dr. King’s arrival, as many members of the Albany Movement were initially hesitant about his involvement in Albany . In addition, the article highlights many prominent events during the Albany Movement and the assistance Dr. King played in aiding desegregation in this Southwest Georgia town.
Roy, Ralph Lord. “Recalling Albany Arrests Forty Years Later.” Methodist History 41.3 (2003): 89-95.
United Press International
---. “ Albany Integrates Library.” Savannah News 12 March 1963 : 7A.
Five Black library patrons quietly integrate the library. These individuals were Dr. W.G. Anderson, Slater King, M.S. Page and two unnamed patrons. Anderson referred to the integration as a “great moral victory.” The integration of the library occurred in the midst of other racially charged intersections between the Black community, local businesses, and local government.
---. “King, Abernathy among 266 Arrested in Albany March.” Columbus Ledger 17 Dec. 1961 : A1.
A Saturday march on the courthouse spiced up local holiday shopping. All 266 demonstrators were arrested for “illegal parading.” Chief Pritchett also ordered all liquor stores be closed, a precaution against further violence. The holiday season brought many rural individuals into the town of 56, 000, rural individuals from areas even more resistant to integration efforts. The demonstrators had a list of three demands, concerning the recent protests and efforts to integrate Albany .
---. “Negro Leaders Explain Reasons Albany Pinpointed for Battle .” Macon News 26 Jul. 1962 .
According to Albany movement leader Dr. W.C. Anderson and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Albany had been chosen as a movement center because of the unbending resistance that the city had demonstrated toward integration. With the token exception of compliance with the Interstate Commerce Commission's demand that the buses be desegregated, the city had done nothing.
---. “Negroes Plan Mass Meet After King Placed in Jail.” Columbus Ledger 22 Jul. 1962 .
Following the arrest of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and 27 other demonstrators, the Black community planned a mass meeting. The mass meeting evolved into a prayer meeting that resulted in additional arrests.
---. “Violence Erupts in Albany Strife.” Columbus Ledger-Enquirer 29 Jul. 1962 : A1+.
---. “400 Held in Albany Race Protest.” Columbus Ledger 12 Dec. 1961 : A1+.
A protest of the arrest of 11 Freedom Riders resulted in 400 new arrests. The 11 Freedom Riders were scheduled to face trial that day. All 11 of the original Freedom Riders were represented by C.B. King of Albany and Donald L. Holloway of Atlanta . Between 1500 and 2000 people showed up to witness the demonstration. The Freedom Riders had originally faced charges to integrate a railroad terminal on December 2, 1961 .
---. “ Albany Negroes Attempt Bus Station Desegregation.” The Daily Tribune 14 Dec. 1961 : 1.
After 10 Black youths sat at the Trailways cafe and were served coffee, Chief Pritchett ordered the coffee shop to be closed. “Several hundred white persons lined one corner of the intersection on which the station faces. On another corner there were several hundred Negroes.” The trial of the Freedom Riders was to be held the same day.
---. “Albany Police Jail King and 27 Others.” Savannah Morning News Jul. 1962.
Ten protesters and Martin Luther King, Jr. were jailed for attending a demonstration outside City Hall. They wished to speak to the city leaders. Police Chief Laurie Pritchett asked the protesters, who were leading prayer vigils, to leave four times. They stayed, and were eventually forced to leave. Some were taken away on stretchers, as they refused to move.
---. “Cooling Off' is Sought by Chief.” Columbus Ledger 14 Dec. 1961 : A1+.
Police Chief Laurie Pritchett requested a 'cooling off' period, in which no further protests would take place, after directing the removal of 10 Black youths from the bus terminal cafe. After this removal, which Chief Pritchett contended was for the protection of the young men, the cafe was quickly closed. He made an appeal to the wife of W.G. Anderson, who promised to relay it to her husband. Tensions between the races was intense.
---. “Counters Will End Racial Ban Here.” Columbus Ledger 11 Dec. 1961 : 1.
---. “Effort Launched in Albany to Solve Segregation Battle .” Daily Tribune News 18 Dec. 1961 : 1.
A biracial session concerning the Albany Movement took place. White leaders hoped to agree upon a lessening of the pressure to integrate. M.S. Page promised an economic boycott of white merchants, and that Christmas celebrations would be postponed until the civil rights goals were achieved.
---. “Ministers Plan Albany Pilgrimage.” Macon Telegraph Aug. 1962.
Ministers of various denominations plan to visit the Albany movement, at the request of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. White Albany city officials, including Sheriff Laurie Pritchett and Mayor Asa Kelley, Jr. declared the Albany movement over and Dr. King defeated. Leaders of the movement contend that Dr. King's non-violent methods were working, and had achieved significant results, including focusing international attention and sympathy on the Blacks of the small Georgia town.
---. “Negroes Plan Demonstrations.” Macon News 21 Jul. 1962 : 1.
Demonstrations aimed at gaining the global eye are planned. Dr. King cancelled a speaking engagement in Connecticut in order to assist in the Albany movement. Movement leaders hoped to gain the an audience with the United Nations. A press conference in London , to be led by a movement leader, was planned. The Rev. Glenn Smiley of Nyack , N.Y. , the national field secretary for the Fellowhip of Reconciliation attended.
---. “Outside Agitators Blamed For Albany Demonstrations.” Daily Tribune News 18 Dec. 1961 : 1.
---. “Police Chief in Albany Denies Guard Needed: Vandiver Threatens to Remove Dr. King.” Macon News 26 Jul. 1962 : 1.
At the height of tensions in Albany , Georgia governor Ernest Vandiver places 12,000 National Guardmen on alert in the even that they are needed to quell the tensions. Albany Police Chief Laurie Pritchett asserted that the his force would not need help. The offer came on the heels of an incident of rock-throwing by local Black youths. The Black community had responded with a self-imposed “Day of Penance,” during which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. had visited local taverns, pool halls, and stood on street corners preaching his message of non-violence.
---. “Ready to be Jailed Again.” Columbus Ledger 3 Aug. 1962 .
Sixteen year old Gloria Ward asserts her unwavering faith in the Albany Movement, despite her own stint in the local jail. Despite the challenges that she has faced, she believes that the movement will result in “pricking the conscience” of the White people of her community. As a result, she hopes that they will integrate public facilities.
---. “Sheriff Says He Struck Negro After Interference.” Augusta Chronicle 30 Jul. 1962 : 1.
Dougherty County sheriff D.C. Campbell struck attorney C.B. King in the head with a walking stick. The sheriff argued that Mr. King had refused to leave his office and was interfering with business in the office. The incident occurred in the wake of Mr. King's questions regarding William Hansen, a young man from Cincinnati who had been jailed for participating in a prayer vigil. Mr. Hansen had been placed in a cell, and given a broken jaw and a cut lip by his cell mate. The sheriff responded to Mr. King's questions by giving Mr. King a two inch scalp wound that necessitated overnight hospitalization and eight stitches.
---. “Student Says Mass Meets are Useless.” Columbus Ledger 3 Aug. 1962 .
A white female student, 18, believes that the mass meetings are useless. A defender of segregation, she asserts her belief that the meetings are publicity stunts which exploit naive youths. She sums up her beliefs simply, stating that “There's no equality among people of any race.”
---. “Whites, Negroes Seek Solution of Differences Today In Albany : South City Quieted Today.” Daily Tribune News 15 Dec. 1961 : 1+.
---. “29 Arrested in Albany ‘Lay-Down’.” Columbus Ledger 22 Apr. 1962 : 1.
This article describes a peaceful demonstration by a group of Albany residents who decided to challenge the segregation in downtown Albany . After a brief non-violent prayer vigil, the demonstrators laid down on the sidewalk and we taken to jail on stretchers.
New York Times
Bracker, Milton. “ Albany , Ga. , Fight to Continue, Dr. King's Spokesperson Pledges.” New York Times 30 July 1962 : 12.
Arrests of prominent individuals involved in the Albany movement, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., sparked debate regarding the strategies for progress. William Gilchrist Anderson spoke on nationally televised “Meet the Press” regarding the matter. James J. Kilpatrick, the editor of the Richmond News Leader, asked whether the Black community had not “invited the arrest?” Mr. Anderson replied that “Yes, if expressing your constitutional rights is inviting arrest, yes.”
“ Georgia Refuses to Free Dr. King.” New York Times 27 Oct. 1960 : 22.
Amidst much controversy, DeKalb County officials placed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in jail for a probation violation. Dr. King had a 12 month suspended sentence for driving with a suspended license. The week before this most recent arrest, Dr. King had participated in a sit in. As a result, he was arrested for refusing to leave private property. His arrest in this sit-in was a violation of his probation, and thus he was re-arrested for this offense. He was taken to the state prison in Reidsville. His lawyers and protesters vehemently asserted the injustice of Dr. King's arrest, citing that the sit-in arrest was unconstitutional. Eleanor Roosevelt wrote a protest letter to Atlanta Mayor William B. Hartsfield, who replied to the press that the city had nothing to do with the arrest. The arrest had taken place in DeKalb County , not within Atlanta proper.
Jones, Theodore. “Ministers Appeal Here For Negroes: Plan to Seek White House Aid in Albany , Ga. , Crisis.” New York Times 31 Jul. 1962 : 17.
Ministers, both White and Black, attempt to gain an audience with President John F. Kennedy. These individuals, including Rev. George Lawrence and Rev. Thomas Kilgore agreed to lead a motorcade from Harlem to Washington . The purpose of the motorcade, according to Rev. Lawrence, was “to let the world know that the breakdown of spirit in Albany is a thing upon our conscience.”
Sitton, Claude. “ Albany , GA. , Jails 75 in Prayer Vigil: 70 of Religious Leaders Are From North and Midwest .” New York Times 28 Aug. 1962 : 10C.
Perdew, John, ed. "Albany Civil Rights Movement Museum." 21
An interactive website that discusses the Civil Rights Movement using brief history and study questions. The actual museum is located in the old Mt. Zion Baptist Church , which houses an impressive collection of photographs and memorabilia related to the Albany Movement. A great museum for students to learn more about the movement.
Formwalt, Lee W. New Georgia Encyclopedia. “Albany Movement.” 2 Dec. 2003 <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1057>.
Each of the following links offers an in-depth look into the incidents, people, and places of the Civil Rights Movement that occurred in Albany , Georgia . From major participants to monumental events, the New Georgia Encyclopedia offers a vast array of information for researching the Albany Movement.
“C.B. King (1923-1988).” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1100>.
“Civil Rights Movement.” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2716>.
“ Dougherty County.” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2324>.
“Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968). <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1009>.
“Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990.)” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2736>.
“Slater King (1927-1969).” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2552>.
“Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).” <http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2743>.
“The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. Chapter 16: The Albany Movement.” Stanford University. 21 Oct. 2005 <http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/publications/autobiography/chp_16.htm>.
Reproductions of Martin Luther King Jr.’s autobiography, this particular web site offers an enormous amount of first hand knowledge about the Albany Movement. The autobiography offers a timeline, summaries, and an assortment of jail diaries to erect a compelling story of the Albany Movement. A very resourceful look into the events, people and places in Albany , Georgia as King takes us through the Albany Movement with gripping details.
The Faith Project, Inc. “A Faith Forged in Albany .” PBS. 24 May 2006 <http://www.pbs.org/thisfarbyfaith/journey_4/p_4.html>.
An interesting website that accompanies a video series produced by PBS to explore the religious and spiritual connotations of the Civil Rights Movement. This web page that highlights the Albany Movement to capture its inception, which fueled later demonstrations held throughout the city. The video offers a more investigative look into the movement in Albany , GA including the purpose and efforts of mass meetings in addition to the roles of its leaders.
Voices of Civil Rights: Bus Tour. AARP. 17 Feb. 2005 .
As a companion piece to the "Voices of Civil Rights" DVD, this site hosts a number of video clips, images, and maps that chart the project's journey across the United States . The site also entails detailed information about the journalists’ experiences, including journal entries. A wealth of information will help users become oriented with the project's goals and the outcome of the journey to record oral interviews pertaining to Civil Rights.
We Shall Overcome – Mt. Zion Baptist Church . Ed. Ginny Finch. 13 Apr. 2006 <http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/g3.htm>.
This site offers a brief description of Mt. Zion Baptist Church and its role in the Albany Movement. Several photographs are presented in depicting the significance of this historical landmark during the Civil Rights Movement. The web site was created by the National Parks Service.
Eyes on the Prize: America ’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. Dir. Jon Else. Videocassette. PBS Video, 1986.
This particular video series offers one of the most comprehensive looks into the Civil Rights Movement. With the monumental Brown v. Board of Education decision to the influential March of Washington and beyond. In this series, viewers explore the efforts of a mass struggle towards equality.
Voices of Civil Rights [Videorecording] / the History Channel ; A&E Television Networks. Dir. AARP. DVD. New Video, 2006.
A wonderful resource for learning about the lives of African Americans during the Jim Crow era. This project is the result of a 70-day tour (photographers, journalists, videographers) across the United States in an effort to record the oral histories of ordinary citizens. Using a variety of cities and towns (including Albany , GA ), this DVD collection explores responses to public life, education, voter registration as well as a host of other themes in the name of social justice. An ideal source for students to become familiar with the limitations imposed upon African Americans during the time.
Bradley, David, and Shelley Fisher Fishkin, eds. The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America . 3 vols. Armonk: Sharpe Reference, 1998.
Lowery, Charles D., and John F. Marszalek, eds. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Civil Rights : From Emancipation to the Twenty-First Century. 2 vols. Westport : Greenwood P, 2003.
Murray, Paul T. Civil Rights Movement: References and
Resources. New York
: G.K. Hall, 1993.